The ball valve was invented in the early 1950s and consists of a spherical disc. With the rapid advancement in technology and improvement in the product structure and processing techniques, the quality valves has emerged as one of the main valves in recent times. Today it finds application in many industries all across the Globe.
Inside of those , there is a spherical ball having a hole in the middle. When it is aligned with both the valve ends, liquid can flow with ease through it. After the quality valve is fully closed, this hole becomes perpendicular to the valve ends thereby impeding any flow of liquid.
Due to their hassle free mechanism, valves are extensively used in different industries. They are also preferred due to their wide operating range for temperatures, pressures and versatility. The sizes of those range from 0.5 - 30 cm. They are manufactured using different materials like plastic, metal or metal having ceramic center.
For catering different industrial requirements, these valves are classified into various types. Considering them from the body perspective, they can be split body, single body, top entry, 3 piece body and welded. Though ball valves may be of different types, yet their operation is same.
Ball valve is also categorized according to the bore in its ball mechanism and comes in many styles. Usually they are cavity filler ball valves, reduced port, full port, V port and trunnion. Manually operated piston type are easy to close. Some valves used in the industries are also operated by a motor using an actuator.
Today the use of various kinds of piston type provides numerous benefits to different industries in the world. Without these valves, the process to control the fluid flow would certainly be a huge concern for all these processing and manufacturing companies.
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Deborah is journalist and business specialists. She writes for several newspapers about business topics such as Ball Valve ,and several other which attract attention of many readers.
Types of check valves
A ball check valve in the open position to allow forward flow and closed position to block reverse flow
A ball check valve is a check valve in which the closing member, the movable part to block the flow, is a spherical ball. In some (but not all) ball check valves, the ball is spring-loaded to help keep it shut. For those designs without a spring, reverse flow is required to move the ball toward the seat and create a seal. The interior surface of the main seats of ball check valves are more or less conically-tapered to guide the ball into the seat and form a positive seal when stopping reverse flow.
Ball check valves are often very small, simple, and cheap. They are commonly used in liquid or gel minipump dispenser spigots, spray devices, some rubber bulbs for pumping air, etc., manual air pumps and some other pumps, and refillable dispensing syringes. Although the balls are most often made of metal, they can be made of other materials, or in some specialized cases out of artificial ruby. High pressure HPLC pumps and similar applications commonly use small inlet and outlet ball check valves with balls made of artificial ruby and seats made of artificial sapphire, both for hardness and chemical resistance. After prolonged use, such check valves can eventually wear out or the seat can develop a crack, requiring replacement. Therefore, such valves are made to be replaceable, sometimes placed in a small plastic body tightly-fitted inside a metal fitting which can withstand high pressure and which is screwed into the pump head.
There are similar check valves where the disc is not a ball, but some other shape, such as a poppet energized by a spring. Ball check valves should not be confused with ball valves, which is a different type of valve in which a ball acts as a controllable rotor to stop or direct flow.
A diaphragm check valve uses a flexing rubber diaphragm positioned to create a normally-closed valve. Pressure on the upstream side must be greater than the pressure on the downstream side by a certain amount, known as the pressure differential, for the check valve to open allowing flow. Once positive pressure stops, the diaphragm automatically flexes back to its original closed position.
A swing check valve or tilting disc check valve is check valve in which the disc, the movable part to block the flow, swings on a hinge or trunnion, either onto the seat to block reverse flow or off the seat to allow forward flow. The seat opening cross-section may be perpendicular to the centerline between the two ports or at an angle. Although swing check valves can come in various sizes, large check valves are often swing check valves. The flapper valve in a flush-toilet mechanism is an example of this type of valve. Tank pressure holding it closed is overcome by manual lift of the flapper. It then remains open until the tank drains and the flapper falls due to gravity. Another variation of this mechanism is the clapper valve, used in applications such firefighting and fire life safety systems. A hinged gate only remains open in the inflowing direction. The clapper valve often also has a spring that keeps the gate shut when there is no forward pressure.
A stop-check valve is a check valve with override control to stop flow regardless of flow direction or pressure. In addition to closing in response to backflow or insufficient forward pressure (normal check-valve behavior), it can also be deliberately shut by an external mechanism, thereby preventing any flow regardless of forward pressure.
A lift-check valve is a check valve in which the disc, sometimes called a lift, can be lifted up off its seat by higher pressure of inlet or upstream fluid to allow flow to the outlet or downstream side. A guide keeps motion of the disc on a vertical line, so the valve can later reseat properly. When the pressure is no longer higher, gravity or higher downstream pressure will cause the disc to lower onto its seat, shutting the valve to stop reverse flow.
A duckbill valve is a check valve in which flow proceeds through a soft tube that protrudes into the downstream side. Back-pressure collapses this tube, cutting off flow.
Multiple check valves can be connected in series. For example, a double check valve is often used as a backflow prevention device to keep potentially contaminated water from siphoning back into municipal water supply lines. There are also double ball check valves in which there are two ball/seat combinations sequentially in the same body to ensure positive leak-tight shutoff when blocking reverse flow; and piston check valves, wafer check valves, and ball-and-cone check valves.
Check valves are often used with some types of pumps. Piston-driven and diaphragm pumps such as metering pumps and pumps for chromatography commonly use inlet and outlet ball check valves. These valves often look like small cylinders attached to the pump head on the inlet and outlet lines. Many similar pump-like mechanisms for moving volumes of fluids around use check valves such as ball check valves.
Check valves are used in many fluid systems such as those in chemical and power plants, and in many other industrial processes.
Check valves are also often used when multiple gases are mixed into one gas stream. A check valve is installed on each of the individual gas streams to prevent mixing of the gases in the original source. For example, if a fuel and an oxidizer are to be mixed, then check valves will normally be used on both the fuel and oxidizer sources to ensure that the original gas cylinders remain pure and therefore nonflammable.
Some types of irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves built into them to keep the lines from draining when the system is shut off.
Also used with most home made snowmakers.
Check valves used in domestic heating systems to prevent vertical convection, especially in combination with solar thermal installations, also are called gravity brake.
Frank P. Cotter developed a "simple self sealing check valve, adapted to be connected in the pipe connections without requiring special fittings and which may be readily opened for inspection or repair" 1907 (U.S. patent #865,631).
Nikola Tesla invented a deceptively simple one-way valve for fluids in 1916 (U.S. patent #1,329,559; patented 1920).
Hastelloy check valves
Stainless steel wafer check valve
Inconel check valve
Inside view of a tilting disc inconel check valve
Flanged nozzle inconel check valve or axial check valve
This Siamese clappered inlet allows one or two inputs into a deluge gun.
Inside hastelloy check valve, wafer configuration
Large carbon steel swing check valve
Disc for an alloy check valve also known as axial check valve
Wafer check valve
Nuts and bolts for incoloy valves
Inconel check valve springs
^ Wright, Stephen. "Norval valve performance". Northvale Korting. http://www.northvalekorting.co.uk/prod-norval-perf.asp. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
Diode, the electrical analog of a check valve
Check Valves Tutorial The operation, benefits, applications and selection of different designs, including lift, disc, swing and wafer check valves are explained in this tutorial
A picture of a microscopic checkvalve, a scaled down version of Tesla's original fluidic diode.
US Patent 1,329,559, Tesla's original fluidic diode (a test of a design showing very poor performance - n.b. the test protocol did not match the conditions described in the patent)
Categories: Plumbing valves | Firefighting equipment | ValvesHidden categories: Articles lacking sources from November 2008 | All articles lacking sources
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